Preparing the data

Perhaps the easiest way to understand the file format that R requires is to look at the sample data file.

The data file has columns, with header rows word, token, Time, F1, F2, and F3.

The word column indicates the name of the item (which is not necessarily a "word").

The token column indicates the token number (each item should have multiple tokens).

Note that there are multiple entries for a word and token combination. For instance, token "1” of the word "bab” has 31 rows. These rows contain the formant information over time. In this case the times range from -0.225 to 0; at each time point, there are three formant values. This specifies the formant values for the duration of the vowel. (You plot the formant values against Time to check this, using Excel or something similar).

Things that can vary

Things that have to be the same

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